Denmark Just Reversed 30 Years of Euroskeptic Defense Policy


Denmark on Wednesday voted to overturn its opt-out of the E.U.’s frequent protection coverage, reversing three many years of Euroskepticism relating to safety issues. The transfer is the newest signal of the West coalescing in response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

Some 66.9% of voters cast referendum ballots in favor of abandoning the opt-out—first negotiated in 1992—that means Danish officers can now take part in E.U. protection discussions and the nation’s armed forces can deploy on E.U. army operations.

“We now have an excellent stronger basis for shut Nordic safety cooperation in #EU & NATO,” tweeted Danish Overseas Minister Jeppe Kofod in response to the consequence.

Though Denmark has been an E.U. member since 1973, the nation of 5.8 million has been some of the hesitant individuals. The nation has opted out of the euro single foreign money and customary bloc insurance policies on justice and residential affairs—in addition to, till now, protection—that Danes believed would undermine their sovereignty.

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However Russian President Vladimir Putin’s aggression has spurred a rethink. Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen referred to as the referendum simply two weeks after Russia’s Feb. 24 full-scale invasion of Ukraine—and regardless of her Euroskeptic authorities beforehand supporting the opt-out and deeming it a major a part of Danish identification.

In the long run, 11 of Denmark’s 14 events—representing greater than three-quarters of parliament—urged voters to say “sure” to reverse the opt-out.

“Sadly we’re trying ahead to a time that can be much more unstable than what we expertise now,” Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen informed reporters after casting her poll. “I consider it’s the proper factor for Europe, I consider it’s the proper factor for Denmark, consider it’s the proper factor for our future.”

The transfer comes as Nordic neighbors Finland and Sweden have applied to join NATO, abandoning 75 and 200 years of army neutrality, respectively. Denmark, in contrast, was a founding member of NATO and has lengthy adopted a hawkish army posture, steadily partaking in joint army drills and becoming a member of the U.S.-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. On this sense, Wednesday’s referendum is nearer to correcting an aberration than the momentous U-turns of Finland and Sweden.

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“Sweden and Finland making use of to hitch NATO is a transfer of a unique magnitude,” says Christine Nissen, a researcher with the Danish Institute for Worldwide Research. “Although the [Denmark referendum] is a part of the identical story of better European unity.”

The symbolism is necessary however there are substantive components as properly. For one, Denmark can now take part in PESCO, or Everlasting Structured Cooperation, an enhanced E.U. safety framework established in 2017 to allow member states to develop protection capabilities, collaborate on shared initiatives (together with weapons techniques), and enhance the operational readiness and efficiency of their armed forces. Nonetheless, there’s no obligation for Denmark or any member state to partake in E.U. army operations beneath the frequent protection coverage.

Denmark has already been a major contributor to Ukraine’s protection by NATO, even sending heavy weapons corresponding to Harpoon anti-ship missiles. The missiles use lively radar homing and fly simply above the water to evade defenses—and lots of contemplate these weapons offensive reasonably than strictly defensive. “Principally, every little thing that may transfer throughout the Danish armed forces is deployed as a part of the NATO response to bolster the protection on the japanese flank,” says Kristian Soby Kristensen, deputy head of the Centre for Army Research on the College of Copenhagen.

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A lot of the talk across the referendum involved whether or not nearer alignment with the E.U. on protection would possibly come on the expense of cherished army ties to the U.S., U.Ok., and NATO. “NATO is the guarantor of Denmark’s safety,” Morten Messerschmitt, head of the right-wing Danish Folks’s Celebration, who was in opposition to dropping the opt-out, argued throughout a televised debate Sunday “[Denmark’s defensive posture] could be completely completely different if it had been determined in Brussels.”

Nonetheless, Finland and Sweden’s choice to use to hitch NATO mirror the truth that the 2 blocs are more and more aligned. One other spur for Denmark to fall in with the E.U. on safety was the choice by Germany—Denmark’s closest ally apart from the U.S.—to increase its defense spending to 2% of GDP. “Now that Germany is prone to play a a lot bigger function in European safety, the angle is that it’s going to additionally materialize right into a stronger function for the E.U.” says Nissen. “And so, there’s a want to be part of that.”

Separate to the referendum, Denmark in March agreed to extend its protection funds to 2% of GDP by 2033.

In fact, eradicating the opt-out drives a deeper wedge between Copenhagen and Moscow, and dangers antagonizing Putin, although that seems of little consequence to both Denmark’s authorities or individuals. “It’s gone past that—opposition to Russia is robust and heartfelt,” says Kristensen. “The truth that a big nation can use its army pressure to blatantly assault one other nation goes in opposition to every little thing that Danish international and safety coverage has been constructed upon for the final 70 years.”

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Write to Charlie Campbell at

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